How Does Defect Management Lifecycle Work in Software Testing?


Bug life cycle also known as defect life cycle is a process in which defect goes through different stages in its entire life. This lifecycle starts as soon as a bug is reported by the tester and ends when a tester ensures that the issue is fixed and won’t occur again. 

The following are defects states which occur in a defect workflow.


What Are The Defect States?


1. New

It is the first state of the lifecycle in which the bug is identified. Whenever a new bug is found, it is assigned a new state, and then the process of testing and validation starts, which leads to new states. 


2. Assigned

The bug which was newly created is now assigned to the relevant developing department so that it can be fixed. Usually, the manager of the testing team assigns bugs to the developing team. 


3. Open

When a developer starts working on the issue, it falls in an open state. Developers will start working on the bug according to the requirements. There are also chances that the issue won’t seem appropriate, in that case, the developer can transfer the issue to these four states based on specific reasons. 

  • Duplicate
  • Deferred
  • Rejected
  • Not a bug


4. Fixed

A state is marked as fixed when the developer performs necessary actions and the issues no longer exist.


5. Pending Retest

Once a developer works on the issue and fixes the required changes, it is sent back to the tester to test the issue again. The time which is consumed for the waiting of repeated testing, defect remains in the state of ‘Pending Retest’.


6. Retest

When the tester starts testing the issue again, at that point the issue falls in the retest phase. The tester will check again if the developer fixed the bugs as per requirement or not.


7. Reopen

If the requirements are not met properly and the issue still exists in the function then the tester reopens the bug state.


8. Verified

If there is no issue in the bug and it was fixed properly by the developer then the state of the bug is changed and it is marked as verified. 


9. Closed

When a defect does not exist and is tested and verified properly then it ends at a closed state. Tester changes the state of the defect. 


How Does Defect Management Lifecycle Work? 

  • While testing the program, the tester finds a bug.
  • “New” status is assigned to the defects. 
  • The defect is sent to the project manager so it can be analyzed properly. 
  • The project manager makes the decision regarding whether it is valid or not.
  • If the issue is not valid, it is discarded by the project manager and “Rejected” status is assigned. 
  • The manager also verifies that if such an issue was raised previously or not. All these tasks are done through defect management tools for better understanding and transparency. 
  • If the defect is new then it is assigned to the developers so that they can start working on it. “In-progress” state is assigned to bugs in this stage.
  • When the code is fixed, it enters the ‘fixed’ state.
  • Next, the tester will again test the case and will decide if the issue is fixed completely to be closed or whether the developer needs to work on it again. 


Information Regarding Defects

  1. A defect can occur at any point in the software development lifecycle.
  2. The cost of quality can be controlled if a defect is detected in the initial stages of the development. Finding and fixing issues in the early phase saves time, effort, and cost.
  3. If a defect occurs and is fixed in the same phase then it also helps to improve the quality of the system being developed.
  4. Static testing plays a key role in finding defects and minimizing debugging cost. 
  5. Whereas in dynamic testing defects and issues mainly result in failure of the system. 
  6. It is important to document the defect management lifecycle so that the entire team may understand the states of the defects being occurred. 
  7. Ensure to enter required details while entering the issue so that the reason of the issue can be understood by the entire team. 



Testing and development teams work side by side to fix the issue so that the system can work in its best form. To make this communication smooth and to ensure that all errors are fixed timely, it is important to incorporate tools that can help to smoothen the whole process. There are numerous defect management tools available that aid in the testing process and manage the bugs which occur from time to time. If you need help with quality assurance and testing services, drop us a line. At iTexico, an Improving Company, we help ensure your project is delivered exactly to specifications and respond quickly if issues arise.

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